Gender inequality often goes unaddressed in the classroom due in part to the complex, varied experiences of historical and current events through the lens of identity politics.
This can be unfamiliar or intimidating territory for teachers. Fortunately, experienced researchers and educators have shared strategies and tools for discussing these issues with students. We hope that the resources provided in this article further students’ understandings of how our unique identities influence our experiences—that may differ from our peers—and are connected to legacies of U.S. history, world history, and today.
Is feminism for everyone? The question remains open for discussion, building off of current developments, recent scholarship, and greater insight into our shared histories.
Millions of people contributed to the historic crowd-sizes of the worldwide Women’s March on January 21, 2017. Individuals organized across all seven continents, including Antarctica. The women’s march is one example of recent gains, and increased visibility, for women’s rights as human rights—but also an example of how progress made has not been distributed evenly.
Many saw the march as an enormous statement of solidarity, seeking justice on a variety of topics such as women’s access to equal opportunity, other human rights issues like immigrant’s rights, and environmental issues. The video #WhyIMarch highlights some of the participants voices. Critics and contributors have pointed out that the march also created some division and exclusion amongst social groups. They say that the name, messages, and primary focus on the voices of white, middle-class women left little room for more marginalized groups: women of color, indigenous peoples, the LGBTQIA community, etc.
As reiterated in the Mission and Vision of the march, the goal is not to shift away from discussing women’s issues, but to continually open the conversation to everyone, and all individuals affected by oppression, and to consider the the varying challenges and privileges determined by our unique identities.
“The better we understand how identities and power work together from one context to another, the less likely our movements for change are to fracture.” — Kimberlé Crenshaw, who coined the term intersectionality in 1989, “Why intersectionality can’t wait,” Washington Post, September 2015.
This echoes a struggle of the feminist movement that has existed throughout history from the very start—the challenge to unite and represent all women and oppressed genders, and to unite with other oppressed peoples to create change.
For example, a lesser known fact about the iconic Women’s Suffrage Parade of 1913 is that African American women were asked to march separately, behind white women—although some refused this compromise and marched where they wanted, such as activist Ida B. Wells. The second wave of the feminist movement began, in the 1960s, to include more perspectives and demonstrate the link between race, class, and gender oppression. This trajectory continued with the third wave, in the 1990s, by embracing more multicultural diversity and greater forms of gender roles and identity.
Today, women’s rights are often taught in the wider context of gender equality which includes LGBTQ rights and considers the gender spectrum as opposed to a male/female binary. The interconnected nature of today’s social media culture also highlights our ties to global current issues and considers gender inequalities through a comparative approach. For example, this two-minute video on The Global Gender Gap Report from the World Economic Forum received over twenty thousand views.
As classrooms and communities become increasingly diverse, it is often up to teachers to facilitate inclusive discussions and opportunities for greater understanding of our personal identities and their trajectories from history to today. The following resources look at the importance of talking about intersectionality and approaches for teaching it.
By Mackenzie Abernethy
Teaching the Intersections of Race, Class, and Gender:
What is intersectionality?
The idea of intersectionality acknowledges that we all have multiple identities that affect the way we experience the world.
Definition: Intersectionality refers to the social, economic, and political ways in which identity-based systems of oppression and privilege overlap and influence one another. Each person’s identity is made up of the intersections or overlappings of multiple identities—such as gender, race, ethnicity, sexuality, socioeconomic class, (dis)ability, etc.
“It means understanding that different kinds of oppression are interlinked, and that one can’t liberate only one group without the others. It means acknowledging… intersectionality—the fact that along different axes, we’re all both oppressed and oppressors, privileged and disprivileged.” ― Shiri Eisner, Bi: Notes for a Bisexual Revolution, 2013
Why teach intersectionality?
- Our backgrounds, identities, and the issues affecting us are diverse and can foster learning about how our the intersections of our identities shape our perspectives and the way we experience the world.
- To assist students in recognizing which parts of their identity account for bias or might make them feel discriminated against, and to practice constructive communication skills for discussing these issues with peers and in the community.
- “In the classroom, educators can use an intersectional lens to better relate to and affirm all students—like Nicole—and to help young people understand the relationship between power and privilege….” —Teaching at the Intersections article and case study from Teaching Tolerance.
- The TED talk, “The urgency of intersectionality,” by Kimberlé Crenshaw highlights the “injustice squared” experienced by African American women. She highlights the importance of giving students the language and terminology to discuss issues that affect them and their peers.
“Where there’s no name for a problem, you can’t see a problem, and when you can’t see a problem, you… can’t solve it…. Intersectionality was a lived reality before it became a term.” — Kimberlé Crenshaw
- Dr. Miriam Dobson of the Department of History at the University of Sheffield created an infographic, Intersectionality: a Fun Guide, that illustrates how intersectionality unites different groups of oppressed peoples. There is also a Spanish version of the infographic.
- Teaching tolerance offers a three-minute video on Intersectionality 101.
- The Khan Academy also offers a video on intersectionality and Social Inequality with diagrams for visual learners.
- After students understand the basics, they may enjoy this video in which Kids Explain Intersectionality.
- The #Raceand Video Series from Race Forward: The Center for Racial Justice Innovation interviews individuals about their identity and intersectionality:
- National Geographic’s January 2017 issue, The Gender Revolution, spotlights the global shifting landscape of gender identity and inequalities in gender discrimination. It can be supplemented with a discussion guide for teachers and parents or online videos including “In Their Words: How Children Are Affected by Gender Issues.”
- Gender Spectrum, with the mission to create a gender-inclusive world for all children and youth, offers content and strategies for creating more gender inclusive schools, including worksheets for gender-inclusive action planning and assessment at schools.
The Choices Program assesses our curriculum units that cover Current Issues, U.S. History, World History for a balance of social, political, and economic perspectives, including underrepresented and non-elite actors such as social groups and individuals from diverse background, social activists, NGO workers, and more.
Header photo by Lynn D. Rosentrater (CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)