• Antiquity
  • Archaeological Chemistry
  • Archaeometry
  • Historical Metallurgy
  • Journal of Archaeological Science
  • Journal of Materials Science
  • Materials Science and Technology


General Sources:

Callister, W. D. 2005. Fundamentals of Materials Science and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Bowman, S. (Ed.). 1991. Science and the Past. London: British Museum Press.

Henderson, J. (ed) 1989. Scientific Analysis in Archaeology and its Interpretation. Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology, Monograph No. 19.

Henderson, J. 2000. The Science and Archaeology of Materials: an Investigation of Inorganic Materials. London: Routledge.

Lambert, J. B. 1997. Traces of the Past: Unraveling the Secrets of Archaeology Through Chemistry. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Mardia, K. V., Kent, J. T. and Bibby, J. M. 1979. Multivariate Analysis. London: Academic Press.

Orton, C. 1980. Mathematics in Archaeology. London: Collins.

Pollard, A. M. and C. Heron. 1996. Archaeological Chemistry. Cambridge: RSC Paperbacks.

Reed, S. J. B. 1975. Electron Microprobe Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Reed, S. J. B. 1996. Electron Microprobe Analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy in Geology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Renfrew, C. and P. Bahn. 2001. Archaeology: Theories, Methods, and Practice. London: Thames & Hudson.

Sillar, B., and Tite, M. 2000. The challenge of ‘technological choices’ for material science approaches in archaeology. Archaeometry 2-20.


Archaeology & Materials Science – Additional Sources:

Allen, R. O., ed. 1989 Archaeological Chemistry IV. American Chemical Society Symposium Series 220. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.

Argyropoulos, V. 1995 A Characterization of the Compositional Variations of Roman Samain Pottery Manufactured at the Lezoux Production Centre. Archaeometry 37:271–285.

Biers, W. R., and McGovern, P. E., eds. 1990 Organic Contents of Ancient Vessels: Materials Analysis and Archaeological Investigation (edited with W. R. Biers). MASCA Research Papers in Science and Archaeology, vol. 7. Philadelphia: MASCA, University of Pennsylvania Museum, University of Pennsylvania. Articles on “Drink and Be Merry!: Infrared Spectroscopy and Ancient Near Eastern Wine” (with V. Badler and R. H. Michel) and “Royal Purple Dye: Its Identification by Complementary Chemical Techniques” (with R. H. Michel).

Dunnell, R. C. 1993 Why Archaeologists Don’t Care about Archaeometry. Archaeomaterials 7: 161-65.

Evershed, R. P., et al. 1994 Application of Isotope Ratio Monitoring Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry to the Analysis of Organic Residues of Archaeological Origin. Analyst 119: 909-14.

Entwistle, Jane A., Peter W. Abrahams, and Robert A. Dadgshon 1998 Multi-Elemental Analysis of Soils from Scottish Historical Sites. Interpreting Land0use History Through the Physical and Geochemical Analysis of Soil. Journal of Archaeological Science 25:53–68.

Gratuze, B. 1999 Obsidian Characterization by LA-ICP-MS and its Application to Prehistoric Trade in the Mediterranean and the Near East: Sources and Distribution of Obsidian within the Aegean and Antolia. Journal of Archaeological Science 26:869–881.

Knapp, A. B. 1991 Spice, Drugs, Grain and Grog: Organic Goods in Bronze Age East Mediterranean Trade. Pp. 21-68 in Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean, ed. N. H. Gale. Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology, vol. 90. Jonsered, Sweden: P. Åström. Limbrey, S. 1975 Soil Science and Archaeology. London: Academic.

McGovern, P. E., Fleming, S. J., and Swann, C. P. 1991 The Beads from Tomb B10a B27 at Dinkha Tepe (Azerbaijan, Iran), and the Beginnings of Glassmaking in the Ancient Near East. American Journal of Archaeology 95: 395 402.

1993 New Kingdom Silicate Technology at Home and Abroad. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 290 291: 1 27.

McGovern, P. E., and Michel, R. H. 1985 Royal Purple Dye: Tracing the Chemical Origins of the Industry. Analytical Chemistry 57: 1514A 1522A. 1990 Royal Purple Dye: The Chemical Reconstruction of the Ancient Mediterranean Industry. Accounts of Chemical Research 23: 152 158.

McGovern, P. E., Michel, R. H., and Lazar, J. 1990 The Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Indigoid Dyes. Journal of the Society of Dyers and Colourists 106: 22 25.

Michel, R. H., McGovern, P. E., and Badler, V. R. 1993 The First Wine and Beer: Chemical Detection of Ancient Fermented Beverages. Analytical Chemistry 65: 408A 413A.

Mills, J. S., and White, R. 1994 The Organic Chemistry of Museum Objects. 2nd ed. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Neff, H., ed. 1992 Chemical Characterization of Ceramic Pastes in Archaeology. Monographs in Old World Archaeology 7. Madison, WI: Prehistory. 1994 RQ-Mode Principal Components Analysis of Ceramic Compositional Data. Archeometry 36: 115-30.

Neff, H., Bishop, R. L., and Arnold, D. E. 1988. Reconstructing Ceramic Production from Ceramic Compositional Data: An Example from Guatemala. Journal of Field Archaeology 15: 339-48.

Porat, Naomi, Joseph Yellin, Lisa Heller-Kallai, and Ludwik Halicz 1991 Correlation Between Petrography, NAA, and ICP Analyses: Application to Early Bronze Pottery from Canaan. Geoarchaeology 6:133–149.

Sandford, M. K., editor. 1993 Investigations of Ancient Human Tissue: Chemical Analyses in Anthropology. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, Amsterdam.

Wisseman, S. U. and W. S. Williams editors. 1994 Ancient Technologies and Archaeological Materials. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.


Anthropological Perspectives:

Deitler, M. and I. Herbich. 1998 “Habitus, Techniques, Style: An Integrated Approach to the Social Understanding of Material Culture and Boundaries,” In The Archaeology of Social Boundaries, M. Stark (ed.), Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.

Dobres, Marcia-Anne 1999 “Technology’s Links and Chaines: The Processual Unfolding of Technique and Technician,” In The Social Dynamics of Technology: Practice, Politics, and World Views. Edited by Marcia-Anne Dobres and Christopher R. Hoffman, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C., p. 124-146.

2000 Technology and Social Agency: Outlining a Practice Framework for Archaeology. Blackwell, Oxford.

Lemonnier, P. 1993 Technical Choices: Transformations in Material Cultures since the Neolithic. London: Routledge.

Miller, D. 1998 Material Cultures; Why Some Things Matter. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Petroski, H. 1996 Invention by design: How engineers get from thought to thing. HUP: Cambridge, Massachusetts.


Criticial Debate in Papers from the Institute of Archaeology (University College London):

Merriman, N., 2002. A response to Michael Tite’s paper on Archaeological collections: invasive sampling versus object integrity. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 13, 6-8.

Rehren, Th., 2002. Object integrity; or why do we excavate? Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 13, 9-12.

Tite, M.S., 2002a. Archaeological collections: invasive sampling versus object integrity. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 13, 1-5.

Schadla-Hall, T., 2002. A response to Invasive sampling versus object integrity. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 13, 13-15.

Tite, M.S., 2002b. Invasive sampling versus object integrity: a final response. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 13, 19-20.

Tubb, K.W. 2002. Sampling: widening the perspective. Papers from the Institute of Archaeology 13, 16-18.



Abdu, B., Gordon, R. and Knopf, R. 2003 Interpretation of artefacts from Thomas Jefferson’s nailery at Monticello, Virginia. Journal of the Historical Metallurgy 37 (1) 43 – 50

Anheuser, K. 2000 Amalgam tinning of Chinese bronze antiquities. Archaeometry, 42:189-200.

Anheuser, K. and Northover, J.P. 1995 ‘Silver plating on Roman and Celtic coins from Britain – a technical study’, The British Numismatic Journal (1994) 64 22-32.

Budd, P., Pollard, A.M., Scaife, B. and Thomas, R.G. 1995 ‘The possible fractionation of lead isotopes in ancient metallurgical processes’, Archaeometry 37 143-150

Cleere, Henry 1971 Ironmaking in a Roman Furnace. Britannia 2:203-217.

Cowell, M. & Craddock, P.T. 1995 ‘Copper in the skin of Lindow Man’, in “Bog Bodies: New Discoveries and New Perspectives” British Museum Press, London 74-75

Craddock, P.T.and Hook, D.R. 1995 ‘Copper to Africa: evidence for the international trade in metal with Africa’, in Hook,D.R. & Gaimster,D.R.M. 1995 (eds) pp 181-193

David, Nicholas, Robert Heimann, David Killick, and Michael Wayman 1989 Between bloomery and blast furnace: Mafa iron-smelting technology in North Cameroon. The African Archaeological Review, 7: 183-208.

Devos, W, M. Senn-Luder, C. Moor, and C. Salter 2000 Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for Spatially Resolved Trace Analysis of Early-Medieval Archaeological Iron Finds. Fresenius Journal of Analytic Chemistry 366:873–880.

Gordon, Robert B. 1996 American Iron, 1607-1900. The John Hopkins University Press. Baltimore & London 1997. ‘Process Deduced from ironmaking wastes and artefacts’, Journal of Archaeological Science, 24 9-18.

Gordon, Robert B. and David J. Killick 1992 The Metallurgy of the American Bloomery Process. Archaeomaterials, 6:141-167.

1993 Adaptation of Technology to Culture and Environment: Bloomery Iron Smelting in America and Africa. Technology and Culture, 34:243-270.

Gordon, Robert B. and Patrick M. Malone 1994 The Texture of Industry: An Archaeological View of Industrialization of North America. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hein, Anno, Vassilis Kilikoglou, and Vasiliki Kassianidou 2007 Chemical and mineralogical examination of metallurgical ceramics from a Late Bronze Age copper smelting site in Cyprus. Journal of Archaeological Science, 34:141-154.

Lechtman, H. & Klein, S. 1999 ‘The Production of Copper-Arsenic Alloys (Arsenic Bronze) by Cosmelting: Modern Experiment, Ancient Practice’, Journal of Archaeological Science26 497-526

Piaskowki, Jerzy 1989 Phosphorus in Iron Ore and Slag, and in Bloomery Iron. Archaeomaterials,3:47-59.

Starley, David 1999 Determining the Technological Origins of Iron and Steel. Journal of Archaeological Science, 26:1127-1133.

Unglik, Henry 1986 Metallurgical investigations of cast irons from Les Forges du Saint-Maurice Ironworks, Quebec, Canada. Historical Metallurgy, 21(1):1-7.

1990 Observations on the structures and formation of microscopic smithing residues from Bixby Blacksmith Shop at Barre Four Courners, Massachusets, 1824-55. Historical Metallurgy, 25(2):92-98.

Young, S. M., M. Budd, R. Haggerty, and A. M. Pollard 1997 Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of Ancient Metals. Archaeometry 39:379–392.


Glass Technology:

Brill, R. H. 1988. Scientific Investigations of the Jalame Glass and Related Finds. In Weinberg, G. D. (Ed.), Excavations at Jalame: Site of a Glass Factory in Late Roman Palestine, Columbia, University of Missouri Press, 257-294.

Brill, R. H. 1992. Chemical Analysis of Some Glasses from Frattesina. Journal of Glass Studies 34, 11-22.

Brill, R. H. 1995. Chemical Analysis of Some Glass Fragments from Nishapur in The Corning Museum of Glass. In Kröger, J. (Ed.), Nishapur: Glass of the Early Islamic Period, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 211-217.

Brill, R. H. 1999a. Chemical Analyses of Early Glasses. Vol. 1 The Catalogue. Corning, NY: The Corning Museum of Glass.

Brill, R. H. 1999b. Chemical Analyses of Early Glasses. Vol. 2 The Tables. Corning, NY: The Corning Museum of Glass.

Brill, R. H. 2002. Some Thoughts on the Chemistry and Technology of Islamic Glass. In Carboni, S. and Whitehouse, D. (Eds.), Glass of the Sultans, New York, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 25-45.

Degryse, P., Schneider, J., Haack, U., Lauwers, V., Poblome, J., Waelkens, M., and Ph. Muchez. 2006. Evidence for Glass ‘Recycling’ Using Pb and Sr Isotopic Ratios and Sr-Mixing Lines: the case of early Byzantine Sagalassos. Journal of Archaeological Science 33, 494-501.

Freestone, I. C., Bimson, M. and Buckton, D. 1988. Compositional Categories of Byzantine Glass Tesserae. Annales du 11e Congrès de l’Association Internationale du Verre. Bâle, 271-279.

Freestone, I. C., Gorin-Rosen, Y., and Hughes, M. J. 2000. Primary Glass from Israel and the Production of Glass in Late Antiquity and the Early Islamic Period. In Nenna, M. D. (Ed.), La Toute du Verre: Ateliers Primaires et Secondaires du Second Millénaire av. J.-C. au Moyen Âge, Lyon, Maison de l’Orient Méditerranéen, 65-83.

Freestone, I. S., Greenwood, R. and Gorin-Rosen, Y. 2002. Byzantine and Early Islamic Glassmaking in the Eastern Mediterranean: Production and Distribution of Primary Glass. In Kordas, G. (Ed.), Hyalos Vitrum Glass: History, Technology and Conservation of Glass and Vitreous Materials in the Hellenic World, Athens, 1st International Conference, 167-174.

Henderson, J. 1985. The Raw Materials of Early Glass Production. Oxford Journal ofArchaeology 4 (3), 267-291.

Henderson, J. 1988. Electron Probe Microanalysis of Mixed-Alkali Glasses. Archaeometry 30 (1), 77-91.

Henderson, J. 1999. Archaeological and Scientific Evidence for the Production of Early Islamic Glass in al-Raqqa, Syria. Levant 31, 225-40.

Henderson, J. 2003. Localised Production or Trade? Advances in the Study of Cobalt Blue and Islamic Glasses in the Levant and Europe. In van Zelst, L. (Ed.), Patterns and Process: A Festschrift in Honor of Dr. Edward V. Sayre, Suitland, MD, Smithsonian Center for Materials Research and Education, 227-245.

Marii, F. 2001. Typological and Chemical Analysis of the Glass. In Fiema, Z. T. et al (Eds.), The Petra Church, Amman, The American Center of Oriental Research, 377-383.

Matson, F. R. 1951. The Composition and Working Properties of Ancient Glasses. Journal of Chemical Education 28, 82-87.

McLoughlin, S. D. 2003. The Characterisation of Archaeological Glasses Using Advanced Analytical Techniques. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis; University of London, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine.

Rehren, Th. 2000b. Rationales in Old World Base Glass Compositions. Journal of Archaeological Science 27, 1225-1234.

al-Sa’ad, Z. 1997. The Weathering Behaviour of Ancient Glass as a Function of its Composition. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan 6, 427-432.

Sanderson, D. C. W. and Hutchings, J. B. 1987. The Origins and Measurement of Colour in Archaeological Glasses. Glass Technology 28 (2), 99-105.

Sayre, E. V. 1963. The Intentional Use of Antimony and Manganese in Ancient Glasses. In Matson, F. R. and Rindane, G. E., Advances in Glass Technology 2, New York, Plenum Press, 263-282.

Sayre, E. V. and Smith, R. W. 1961. Compositional Categories of Ancient Glass. Science 133, No. 3467, 1824-1826.

Sayre, E. V. and Smith, R. W. 1967. Some Materials of Glass Manufacturing in Antiquity. In Levey, M. (Ed.), Archaeological Chemistry: a Symposium, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 279-311.

Shahid, K. A. and Glasser, F. P. Phase Equilibria in the Glassforming Region of the System Na2O-CaO-SiO2. Physics and Chemistry of Glasses 12 (2), 50-57.

Turner, W. E. S. 1956a. Studies in Ancient Glasses and Glassmaking Processes; Part III: The Chronology of the Glassmaking Constituents. Journal of the Society of Glass Technology 40, 39-52.

Turner, W. E. S. 1956b. Studies in Ancient Glasses and Glassmaking Processes; Part IV: Raw Materials and Melting Processes. Journal of the Society of Glass Technology 40, 277-299.

Verita, M., R. Basso, M. T. Wypyski and Koestler, R. J. 1994. X-Ray Microanalysis of Ancient Glassy Materials: a Comparative Study of Wavelength Dispersive and Energy Dispersive Techniques. Archaeometry 36 (2), 241-251.

Wedepohl, K. H. 1997. Chemical Composition of Medieval Glass from Excavations in Western Germany. Glastechnische Berichte Glass Science and Technology 70 (8), 246-255.

Weyl, W. A. 1951. Colored Glasses. Sheffield: Society of Glass Technology.


Ceramic Technology and Provenance:

Abbott, D. R. 2005. Symposium Comments. Session: Using Nuclear Chemistry to Answer Cultural Questions: Recent Applications of INAA in the American Southwest. SAA 70th Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.

Aitchison, J. 1986. The Statistical Analysis of Compositional Data. London: Chapman and Hall.

Baillié, P. J., and Stern, W. B. 1984. Non-destructive surface analysis of Roman terra sigillata: a possible tool in provenance studies. Archaeometry 26 (1), 62-68.

Barclay, K. 2001. Scientific Analysis of Archaeological Ceramics: a Handbook of Resources. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Beier, Th. and Mommsen, H. 1994. Modified Mahalanobis filters for grouping pottery by chemical composition. Archaeometry 36, 287-306.

Blackman, M. J. 1992. The effect of human size sorting on the mineralogy and chemistry of ceramic clays. In Neff, H. (ed.), Chemical Characterization of Ceramic Pastes in Archaeology, Monographs in World Archaeology No 7, Madison, WI, Prehistoric Press, 113-124.

Catling, H. W., Richards, E. E., and Blin-Stoyle, A. E. 1963. Correlations between composition and provenance of Mycenaean and Minoan pottery. The Annual of the British School at Athens 58, 94-115.

Cogswell, J. W., Neff, H. and Middleton, A. P. 1996. The effect of firing temperature on the elemental characterization of pottery. Journal of Archaeological Science 23, 283-7.

Davidson, T.E. 1981. The Neutron Activation Analysis of prehistoric pottery from tell Aqab, northeast Syria. In M.J. Hughes (ed.). Scientific Studies in Ancient Ceramics. BM Occasional Paper No. 19. London: British Museum Press, 21-32.

Freestone, I. C., Meeks N. D. and Middleton, A. P. 1985. Retention of phosphate in buried ceramics: an electron microbeam approach. Archaeometry 27 (2), 161-177.

Gribble, A. J. and Hall, C. D. 1992. Optical Mineralogy: Principles and Practice. London: UCL Press.

Hedges, R. E. M., and McLellan, M. 1976. On the cation exchange capacity of fired clays and its effect on the chemical and radiometric analysis of pottery. Archaeometry 18 (2), 203-207.

Hughes, M. J. (Ed.).1981. Scientific Studies in Ancient Ceramics. Occasional Paper No 19. London: British Museum Press.

Ives, D. J. 1975. Trace element analysis of archaeological materials. American Antiquity 40, 235-236.

Kilikoglou, V., Maniatis, Y. and Grimanis, A.P. 1988. The effect of purification and firing of clays on trace element provenance studies. Archaeometry 30(1): 37-46.

Loney, H.L. 2000. Society and technological control: a critical review of models of technological change in ceramic studies. American Antiquity 65 (4), 646-668.

Mackenzie, W. S. and Adams, A. E. 2001. A Colour Atlas of Rocks and Minerals in Thin Section. London: Manson Publishing.

Magetti, M. 1982. Phase analysis and its significance for technology and origin. In: A.D. Franklin and J.S. Olin (eds.), Archaeological Ceramics. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 121-134.

Matson, F.R. 1982. Archaeological ceramics and the physical sciences: problem definitions and results. In Olin, J.S. and A.D. Franklin (eds.). Archaeological Ceramics. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 19-28.

Neff, H., Bishop, R. L., and Sayre, E. V. 1988. A simulation approach to the problem of tempering in compositional studies of archaeological ceramics. Journal of Archaeological Science 15, 159-172.

Neff, H., Bishop, R. L., and Sayre, E.V. 1989. More observations on the problem of tempering in compositional studies in archaeological ceramics. Journal of Archaeological Science 16, 57-69.

Neff, H. (ed.). 1992. Chemical Characterization of Ceramic Pastes in Archaeology. Monographs in World Archaeology No 7. Madison, WI: Prehistoric Press.

Peacock, D. P. S. 1970. The scientific analysis of ancient ceramics: a review. World Archaeology 1, 375-389.

Rands, R. L. and Wiemer, M. B. 1992. Integrative approaches in the compositional characterization of ceramic pastes. In Neff, H. (ed.), Chemical Characterization of Ceramic Pastes in Archaeology, Monographs in World Archaeology No 7, Madison, WI, Prehistoric Press, 31-58.

Rice, P.M. 1982. Pottery production, pottery classification, and the role of physicochemical analyses. In Olin, J.S. and A.D. Franklin (eds.). Archaeological Ceramics. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 47-56.

Sabloff, J. A. 1991. Toward a future archaeological ceramic science: brief observations from a conference. In Bishop R. L. and Lange F. W. (eds.). The Ceramic Legacy of Anna O. Shepard. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado, 394-399.

Schwedt, A., Mommsen, H. and Zacharias, N. 2001. Post-depositional elemental alterations in pottery: Neutron Activation Analyses of surface and core samples. Archaeometry 46, 85-101.

Stoltman, J. B., Burton, J. H. and Haas, J. 1992. Chemical and petrographic characterizations of ceramic pastes: two perspectives on a single data set. In Neff, H. (ed.), Chemical Characterization of Ceramic Pastes in Archaeology, Monographs in World Archaeology No 7, Madison, WI, Prehistoric Press, 85-92.

Tite, M. S. 1999. Pottery production distribution and consumption – the contribution of the physical sciences. Journal of Archaeological Method and Theory 6(3), 181-233.

Tomber, R., and Dore, J. 1998. The National Roman Fabric Reference Collection. London: Museum of London Archaeology Service Monograph No. 2.

Whitbread, I. K. 1989. A proposal for the systematic description of thin sections toward the study of ancient ceramic technology. Archaeometry 38, 127-138.

Wilson, A. L. 1978. Elemental analysis of pottery in the study of its provenance: a review. Journal of Archaeological Science 5, 219-36.

Winther-Nielsen, M., Conradsen, K., Heydorn, K. and Mejdahl, V. 1981. Investigation of the number of elements required for provenance studies of ceramic materials. In Hughes, M. J. (ed.), Scientific Studies in Ancient Ceramics, Occasional Paper No 19, London, British Museum Press, 85-91.


Metal Technology:

Craddock, P. and J. Lang. 2003. Mining and Metal Production Through the Ages. London: The British Museum Press.

Ponting, M., Evans, J. A. and V. Pashley. 2003. Fingerprinting of Roman Mints Using Laser-Ablation MC-ICP-MS Lead Isotope Analysis. Archaeometry 45 (4), 591-597.

Ramage, A. and P. Craddock. 2000. King Croesus’ Gold: Excavations at Sardis and the History of Gold Refining. London: British Museum Press.

Rothenberg, B. 1990. Ancient Metallurgy of Copper: archaeology-experiment-theory. London: University of London Press.


Metal Provenance (especially copper and tin) in the Late Bronze Age Aegean and Lead Isotope Analysis:

Artzy, M.1999. Cult and Recycling of Metal at the End of the Late Bronze Age. Periplus. Jonsered: Paul Åströms Förlag, 27-31.

Baker, J., Stos, S., and T. Waight. 2006. Lead Isotope Analysis of Archaeological Metals by Multiple-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. Archaeometry 48(1), 45-56.

Budd, P., Gale, D., Pollard, A. M., Thomas, R. G. and P. A. Williams. 1993. Evaluating Lead Isotope Data: Further Observations. Archaeometry 35, 1-7.

Budd, P., Haggerty, R., Pollard, A. M., Scaife, B., and R. G. Thomas. 1996. Rethinking the Quest for Provenance. Antiquity 70, 168-174.

Budd, P., Pollard, A. M., Scaife, B., and R. G. Thomas. 1995. Oxhide Ingots, Recycling and the Mediterranean Metals Trade. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 8, 1-32.

Cherry, J. F. and A. B. Knapp. 1991. Quantitative Provenance Studies and Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean: Some Preliminary Reflections. In: Gale, N. (Ed), Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean, Jonsered, Paul Åströms Förlag, 92-120.

Gale, N. H. 1989. Lead Isotope Analysis Applied to Provenance Studies: a brief review. In: Maniatis, Y. (Ed), Archaeometry: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 469-502.

Gale, N. H. 1996. A New Method for Extracting and Purifying Lead from Difficult Matrices for Isotopic Analysis. Analytica Chemica Acta 332, 15-21.

Gale, N. H. and Z. A. Stos-Gale. 1982. Bronze Age Copper Sources in the Mediterranean: a New Approach. Science 216 (4541), 11-19.

Gale, N. H. and Z. A. Stos-Gale. 1995. Comments on ‘Oxhide Ingots, Recycling and the Mediterranean Metals Trade’. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 8, 33-41.

Gale, N. H., Stos-Gale, Z. A., and G. R. Gilmore. 1985. Alloy Types and Copper Sources of Anatolian Copper Alloy Artifacts. Anatolian Studies 35, 143-173.

Gale, N. H., Woodhead, A. P., Stos-Gale, Z. A., Walder, A., and I. Bowen. 1999. Natural Variations Detected in the Isotopic Composition of Copper: Possible Applications to Archaeology and Geochemistry. International Journal of Mass Spectrometry 184, 1-9.

Guerra, M. F., Sarthre, C.-O., Gondonneau, A., and J.-N. Barrandon. 1999. Precious Metals and Provenance Enquiries Using LA-ICP-MS. Journal of Archaeological Science 26, 1101-1110.

Hall, M. 1995. Comments on ‘Oxhide Ingots, Recycling and the Mediterranean Metals Trade’. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 8, 42-44.

Hauptmann, A., Maddin, R. and M. Prange. 2002. On the Structure and Composition of Copper and Tin Ingots Excavated from the Shipwreck of Uluburun. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 328, 1-30.

Karageorghis, V., and V. Kassianidou. 1999. Metalworking and Recycling in Late Bronze Age Cyprus: the Evidence from Kition. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 18 (2), 171-188.

Knapp, A. B. 2000. Archaeology, Science-Based Archaeology and the Mediterranean Bronze Age Metals Trade. European Journal of Archaeology 3 (1), 31-56.

Knapp, A. B., and J. F. Cherry. 1994. Provenience Studies and Bronze Age Cyprus: Production, Exchange and Politico-Economic Change. Madison: Prehistory Press.

Knapp, A. B., Kassianidou, V., and M. Donnelly. 2001. Copper Smelting in Late Bronze Age Cyprus: the Excavations at Politiko Phorades. Near Eastern Archaeology 64 (4), 204-210.

Knapp, A. B., Muhly, J.D. and P. M. Muhly. 1988. To Hoard is Human: Late Bronze Age Metal Deposits in Cyprus and the Aegean. Report of the Department of Antiquities, Cyprus Part 1.

Muhly, J. D. 1973. Copper and Tin: the distribution of mineral resources and the nature of the metals trade in the Bronze Age. New Haven: Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences.

Muhly, J. D. 1985. Sources of Tin and the Beginnings of Bronze Metallurgy. American Journal of Archaeology 89 (2), 275-291.

Muhly, J. D. 1993. Early Bronze Age Tin and the Taurus. American Journal of Archaeology 97 (2), 239-253.

Pare, C. F. E. 2000. Metals Make the World Go Round: the supply and circulation of metals in Bronze Age Europe. Oxford: Oxbow Books.

Pernicka, E. 1986. Provenance Determination of Metal Artifacts: Methodological Considerations. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B14, 24-29.

Philip, G. 1988. Hoards of the Early and Middle Bronze Ages in the Levant. World Archaeology 20 (2), 190-208.

Reedy C. L. and T. S. Reedy. 1988. Lead Isotope Analysis for Provenance Studies in the Aegean Region: a reevaluation. In: Sayre, E. V., Vandiver, P., Druzik, J. and C. Stevenson (eds), Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology, Pittsburgh, Materials Research Society, 65-70.

Sayre, E. V., Joel, E. C., Blackman, M. J., Yener, K. A., and H. Özbal. 2001. Stable Lead Isotope Studies of Black Sea Anatolian Ore Sources and Related Bronze Age and Phrygian Artefacts from Nearby Archaeological Sites. Appendix: New Central Taurus Ore Data. Archaeometry 43 (1), 77-115.

Sayre, E. V., Yener, K. A., and E. C. Joel. 1995. Comments on ‘Oxhide Ingots, Recycling and the Mediterranean Metals Trade’. Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 8, 45-53.

Sayre, E. V., Yener, K. A., and Joel, E. C., and I. L. Barnes. 1992. Statistical Evaluation of the Presently Accumulated Lead Isotope Data from Anatolia and Surrounding Regions. Archaeometry 34 (1), 73-105.

Snoek, W., Plimer, I. R., and S. Reeves. 1999. Application of Pb Isotope Geochemistry to the Study of the Corrosion Products of Archaeological Artefacts to Constrain Provenance. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 66, 421-425.

Stos-Gale, Z. A. 1989. Lead Isotope Studies of Metals and the Metal Trade in the Bronze Age Mediterranean. In: Henderson, J. (Ed), Scientific Analysis in Archaeology, Oxford, Oxbow Books, 274-301.

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Webb, J. M., Frankel, D., Stos, Z. A. and N. Gale. 2006. Early Bronze Age Metal Trade in the Eastern Mediterranean. New Compositional and Lead Isotope Evidence from Cyprus. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 25 (3), 261-288.

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