Case Notes

1. We have electrical activity in the brain in order to send messages to other parts of the body.  Neurons are used to help transfer that information from the brain to other parts of the body such as the heart or lungs.

2. During a seizure, the neurons get out of control because there is too much electrical activity going on in the brain at one time.  The brain is not sure how to react, so it just goes out of control.

3. Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which a patient has reoccurring seizures.  In order to diagnose epilepsy, a series of tests must be performed in order to be one hundred percent sure that epilepsy is the problem at hand.  Some of the primary tests include and EEG, MRI and CT scan of the brain.  This gives a closer look into the brain and what might be causing it to lose control.

4. The two main procedures for diagnosing epilepsy are and MRI and and EEG.  An EEG measures electrical activity of the brain.  There are specific patterns for abnormalities in the brain such as head trauma or seizures.  The doctor will compare the electrical waves measured from the patient and then compare it to other specific patterns.  An EEG is a painless and noninvasive procedure.  Electrodes are placed on the scalp and attached to an electrical box which will measure the brain activity after being transmitted to a computer.  An MRI is also another noninvasive procedure used for diagnosing epilepsy.  It produces a very high resolution photo of the brain and shows even more detail than a CT scan would.

5. Non epileptic seizures are caused by a few things including metabolic and physical reasons or psychogenic reasons.

6.  Based on the information already given, it seems that Jerrod could be having epileptic seizures.

7. While Jerrod is having a seizure, there are a few things to do in order to make sure everyone, especially Jerrod, is safe.  Make sure there is no furniture in the way or anything else he could possibly hurt himself on.  In addition it is important, if it is possible, to help him gently on to the floor so he does not fall, and most importantly do not try to hold Jerrod down during a seizure, as this could cause much more damage.

8. There are many safe and effective treatments for epilepsy including medication, VNS therapy, and various types of neurosurgery.

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1. Rasmussen Syndrome is a neurological condition starting in children anywhere from 14 months to 14 years old.  Rasmussen is associated most often with seizures, most often partial seizures.  While this disease is rarely fatal, the effects can be very devastating.  Weakness on one side of the body, mental handicap and other symptoms most likely occur in a patient with Rasmussen Syndrome.  Anti epileptic drugs as a treatment most often does not work in patients with Rasmussen.  A brain procedure called a functional hemispherectomy can sometimes be successful.

2. Doctors can use either an MRI or EEG to diagnose Rasmussen Syndrome by viewing brain images and attempting to find brain abnormalities associated with Rasmussen’s.

3.  The left hemisphere of the brain is mainly responsible for language and communication.

4. Jerrod may have issues completing various actions, but he may as well lose short term memory ability and have difficulty with emotions after having the surgery.

5. Jerrod would retain much of his brain and functions.  He would have some muscle memory, coordination and his senses would mostly be left in tact.

6. If Jerrod was to have the surgery, his level of functioning would most definitely increase over time.

7. Are there any alternatives before going ahead with surgery?  Jerrod could try taking medication, but the surgery does have the highest percentage of working in his case.

8. I would recommend that Jerrod go ahead with the surgery.  His level of functioning would increase over time and he would have a decreased amount of seizures.  If this is left untreated, more devastating and fatal effects from Jerrod’s condition could end up occurring. If Jerrod and his family are still unsure about the surgery, they could get a second opinion and rethink the decision.

Sources:

http://www.brainfacts.org/diseases-disorders/epilepsy/articles/2012/seizures-and-epilepsy/

http://www.epilepsy.com/learn/diagnosis/diagnosis-101-basics

http://www.epilepsysociety.org.uk/non-epileptic-seizures#.U-A_wl7argI

http://www.webmd.com/epilepsy/tc/helping-a-person-during-an-epileptic-seizure-topic-overview

http://epilepsy.med.nyu.edu/epilepsy/types-epilepsy/rasmussen-syndrome#sthash.J5OXAJ2N.gbBm46ph.dpbs

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