“I have intrusted Mr. Winslow Upton with the work of compiling the accompanying circular of information relative to time-balls, and have the honor to present herewith the results of his labor.”
―Cleveland Abbe, “Information Relative to the Construction and Maintenance of Time-Balls.” October 1881.
Winslow Upton was a “computer” (in the sense of one who computes) at the U.S. Naval Observatory in 1880. The following year he went to the U.S. Signal Service where he was tasked with compiling a summary on the practice of using time-balls for the distribution of accurate time.
The practice of dropping a ball at exactly noon every day was used to calibrate the chronometers on ships in a nearby harbor. These accurate timepieces were then used for celestial navigation. The balls were installed on tall buildings within a couple of miles of the docked ships. An example is the Boston Time-Ball. The procedure used in Boston was described by B.M. Purssell of the Signal Corps in Upton’s compilation.
“During the greater part of the year the 3-inch transit instrument has been in the hands of the maker, Mr. G. N. Saegmuller. This instrument, while a fairly satisfactory instrument, was not of such superior excellence as the builder expected it would be. He therefore, without any suggestion on my part, offered to rebuild it without expense, which he has done at considerable cost to himself, and it is now a very superior instrument.”
During the 2010 restoration of the transit room we went to great lengths to ensure that the colors used were historically accurate. The George N. Saegmuller transit telescope had been painted black at some point. We suspected that this was not original but it is impossible to tell from the black and white archival photographs.
In 1916 Brown University announced that it would soon offer a course teaching students about a new technology: practical and experimental wireless telegraphy. It was more common during this era to transmit messages by radio waves using Morse code. Voice communication and broadcast radio did not become common until the 1920s.
“A very valuable Howard clock has recently been placed in the Steward’s office. It is regulated by Ladd Observatory standard time, and is thus kept as near correct as possible. The clock is connected with the bell-ringer’s room, so that now the college bell will be rung at exactly the right time, doing away with the nuisance and inconvenience often caused last year by the bell being rung too soon.”
“In appearance the clock is very attractive. The case is of handsome oak, and is about three and one-half feet high. It will undoubtedly be a great convenience to the students and will be used by many for regulating their own time pieces.”
Ladd Observatory placed an order on behalf of Brown University for one #89 Regulator on Sept. 13, 1895 . The clock was manufactured by E. Howard & Co. at a cost of $100 and was shipped to Providence on Sept. 25 where it was installed in the office of the Steward. The position of Steward was held by Archibald Grant Delaney from 1884-1904. His office was 1 University Hall. A telegraph break circuit connected the clock to the college bell in the tower of the building. It was regulated to the correct time by comparing it to the precision timepieces at the Observatory.
“This summit is near the intersection of Hope Street and Doyle Avenue. If in existence in 1835, Hope Street was a rough country road known as East Pawtucket Turnpike. Doyle avenue was not laid out until many years later. On this summit stands Ladd Astronomical Observatory of Brown University erected in 1891.”
When the construction of Ladd Observatory began in May of 1890 the area was rural with few buildings nearby. At a distance to the east and northeast of the hilltop were low lying areas that were swampland, as indicated by the blue hash marks on the map above. These marshes were later drained and filled to allow for building the residential neighborhoods that are seen there today. A short distance to the south there was a large reservoir, built in 1875. A steam powered pumping station delivered the water through pipes buried beneath the streets. The former reservoir is now the site of Hope High School and the athletic fields behind the building.