Center for Language Studies

2017 Final Projects: The Theory and Practice of Foreign Language Teaching

October 10, 2017
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(2017) Mai Hunt

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2016 Final Projects: The Theory and Practice of Foreign Language Teaching

October 10, 2017
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Tommaso Pepe (2016)

MF Chiaramonte (2016)

Brittany Prescott (2016)

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5th International Poetry Night

April 25, 2016
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Brown University Language Weeks!

November 17, 2015
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Introducing Language Weeks at Brown University! With this new initiative, language departments at Brown will create a week-long agenda of activities, such as talks, workshops, movie nights, and more! Whether you have studied the language before, or are interested in learning more about the language and culture for the first time, make sure you check out the wide variety of activities departments have planned this year. For up-to-date information on the dates, times, and locations of events, please check the CLS website at:

We hope to see you there!

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Announcing the Fall Language Festival

May 26, 2015
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CLS is excited to announce its first ever Fall Language Festival, which will take place this September! At the festival, new and returning students will be able to explore various language DUGS, cultural performance groups, language and culture clubs, and countless other language-related groups Brown has to offer. There will also be food, performances, contests, and prizes. Don’t miss out on this great opportunity to engage with the language community at Brown! You may even find your new favorite activity.

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Significance of culture in language teaching

May 25, 2015
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There has always been a lot of debate about whether culture is an essential component of language teaching or not. The four components that have always been focused upon in language teaching are; Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. However, recently there has been a lot of interest in integrating culture as a necessary component of language teaching. Dr. Thomas Garza, Director of the Texas Language Center at the University of Texas, Austin, also refers to culture as the fifth skill for learning a language after Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing. He also brings to attention the fact that without the component of culture, language learning process would not be complete in true sense. Having said all that, it is apparent that cultural competence is emerging as an important skill of language learning. Cross et al, 1989 define cultural competence as “…a set of congruent behaviors, attitudes and policies that come together in a system, agency or those professions to work effectively in cross-cultural situations.” The term culture that has been used here implies the integrated patterns of human behavior that includes thoughts, communications, actions, customs, beliefs, values and institutions of a racial, ethnic, religious or social group. The term competence refers to having the capacity to function effectively. Thus learning a language should not only restricted to the communicative ability but also the ability to communicate without offending any set of thoughts or beliefs of the particular people whose language is involved.

Nostrand, H.L talks about related issues in “Culture in Language Teaching: The Next Phase” and opines that to develop cultural competence in the learners, one needs to teach them to recognize the values, habits of thought, and presuppositions they can expect to encounter and then to act accordingly.  A big question that often haunts language teachers is how much time should be devoted to impart the cultural knowledge to students?  According to the ACTFL guidelines, the languages have been divided into four different groups for learners with English as the native language. They also prescribe the number of hours required to reach each stage in the inverted pyramid of proficiency. After a careful observation it becomes very clear that the gap between the number of required hours and the actual time devoted to teaching is huge. This means that in practice, no intensive teaching programme is capable of exposing its students to so many hours as prescribed by the ACTFL.

This situation makes it even more difficult for the language teachers to allocate time for cultural component. However there are certain ways through which we can communicate such knowledge to students. The first thing that comes to my mind is because one does not have sufficient time, it is necessary that cultural competence is not considered as a different and isolated part of language learning process and that it should take place simultaneously. Facts related to the art, history are very important parts of culture but they probably can easily be found out by the learners themselves and therefore the stress should be on things which you cannot find written anywhere and most of the times, that is what reflects the true culture. Reflecting on such issues, I think I can relate this to a few experiences I have had in my classes at Brown.

When I came to the U.S, there were a lot of things that almost gave me a shock during my initial days. The teacher-student equation is very different in the U.S as compared to India. While in India it is still very formal, it is very casual in the U.S. A student would never address a teacher by her/his first name in India and students still stick to the last name with proper salutations however it is the opposite in the U.S. I discussed this thing with my students as they should know that if they do this in India, the teacher might be surprised initially which braces the students for such behavior. Another big difference in American and Indian classroom is related to the eating habits. It is highly unacceptable for someone to eat something while the class is going on and so my job here was to make them aware of it so that they do not carry the same habit in India because it would be unacceptable. Even if they get through with it in some cases, they should know that it would not be the most desirable thing to do.

Postures of the students in American classrooms have never failed to baffle me. While it is good that they make themselves as comfortable as possible, that is not something that would be acceptable in India. A very liberal teacher might even overlook these things but sometimes I even saw the students putting their feet on the desk beside their notebooks which is bound to invite ire, if done in an Indian classroom. While I was making my students aware of all these things, my idea was not to direct them to change because that would have made no sense to them as these things were perfectly acceptable in their culture but I was making them aware of the differences in both cultures so that they know how to react appropriately when the situation demands.

Another incident took place while assisting my supervisor during one of the classes. A student dropped a page from her folder and it flew to the other side of the table. The student seated on the other side tried to get hold of the page with the help of his foot. As soon as he did it, the girl seated next to him, took the sheet of paper and touched it with her forehead. All the others were baffled as they did not understand what had just happened. This is when I told them that everything related to education like books, notebooks, pen and similar stuff is considered to be sacred and so people never touch it with their feet. I also explained to them that that people assume that disrespecting these things would be considered disrespectful to the goddess of knowledge. Apparently this had nothing to do with the language or communicative skills but the students were really glad to know the whole background. They surely would not require this knowledge in the west but at least they would not offend a native speaker or even if do so unintentionally, would realise their mistake. This was one situation and I got lucky that the situation led me to talk about all the background but such situations may not arise further and we would need to create them in the limited framework and time allocated for our language classes.

Another important cultural thing is related to a whole range of cultural paradigms about the usage of pronouns in India. Unlike English, where ‘you’ is used regardless of any age differences, Hindi has a well-defined set of pronouns to use according to people of different age groups. We use a different pronoun for the elderly in most of the cases. Friends and peers address each-other with a different pronoun. Failing to use the proper pronoun can lead to serious misunderstandings as it would be disrespectful if the pronoun ‘tum’ is used for elders instead of the suitable pronoun ‘aap’. I discussed these details while teaching them about pronouns.

I also told my students a few general things that they should certainly know about the cultural backdrop of India. Many people smoke and drink alcohol in India, but smoking and drinking in front of the elderly is still a taboo there. Besides it is also considered rude to pollute the surroundings with smoke especially when there are aging people around.  These are little things which seem very trivial but actually have great importance in the cultural set-up of a place and interestingly the students also enjoy getting to know about these things as they feel they are learning concrete things.

Use of authentic materials also helps the students to have a correct picture of the cultural background. So for my classes, I always preferred a video clip in which people were wearing clothes that are worn in India rather than clothes that do not fit in the cultural context. Similarly I gave them reading exercises which would correspond to the actual conversations of people and not some form of language that is never spoken. While showing them images of certain food items, I would make sure they see what those things actually look like in India and not something that is the famous version. These are very little bits and pieces of information but have a great collective impact on the language learner. They do not require an extra effort and makes learners culturally competent to a fair extent.



Riya Raj

Fulbright FLTA  for Hindi

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Turkish Culture Night

May 21, 2015
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The Turkish Culture Night, co-sponsored by Center for Language Studies at Brown, Turkish Consulate in Boston and TACSRI (Turkish American Cultural Society of Rhode Island) this year, took place on the 10th of April, 2015 between 6 and 8 pm. The event aimed at promoting Turkish culture and creating a sense of this culture in people by focusing on food, music and dance, and approximately 100 people came to this event. The night started with the food part, where the participants had the chance to taste some delicious Turkish food such as lokum, sarma, dolma, börek, mercimek köftesi, Çerkez tavuğu salatası, baklava and kadayıf. While everyone was in line waiting for their food, they also listened to some soothing and relaxing Turkish songs accompanied by photos from Turkey, projected on the screen. While having their food, they also had the opportunity to listen to a very short and informative presentation about Turkey given by the Fulbright FLTA of Turkish this year, which aimed to give everyone some basic information about Turkey regarding its location, geography, people and culture. So as to expose everyone to some Turkish music, it was time for some Turkish songs sung by two Turks who are interested in music and deal with it. Both the Turkish and English lyrics of the songs were printed for everyone to see and join the singing part of the beautiful performance of the musicians. This part was followed by a dance workshop where those interested in dancing were encouraged to come to the stage and learn some traditional moves of Turkish dance such as damat halayı, horon and Ankara havası with the help of the FLTA of Turkish. The last part of the night was dedicated to some popular and lively Turkish songs, and some came to the floor to enjoy the music and dance. The reflections on the event showed that everyone was pleased to experience the Turkish culture at an event where they could eat, listen to songs, sing and dance. This event will become a tradition at Brown and take place at around the same time of the year so as to give everyone the chance to experience the Turkish culture. If you like Turkish culture, you can learn Turkish right here at Brown during 2015-16 academic year. Here are some photos from the night which would help give an overall idea of how the event this year was like:

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Mediha Toraman
FLTA of Turkish
Brown University

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The Use of Translation in the Language Classroom

May 20, 2015
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This reflection around the place of translation in language teaching springs out of an elementary Portuguese course I took during college. The course met three times a week, MWF, and each Friday we would have a warm-up activity based on translation. The class was divided into two or three groups and the instructor showed us an image on the screen. The image could either be a comic book strip, a film still, or a popular saying to be translated into English. Then, a full class discussion would entail and we decided which was the most “authentic” translation. This example could serve as a starting point for an assessment of the pros and cons of translation exercises within the language classroom. A number of questions emerged from these exercises related to the suitability of translation activities for elementary students, the use of L1 in the classroom, and the practical use of the foreign language. In this reflection I will think of translation in the language classroom as an activity inextricably related to communicative language teaching theories.

According to most CLT theories, translation has little place within the language classroom. The negative connotation of translation derives from its association with the Grammar-Translation method, which emphasized automatic translation and left no room for communicative translation activities. Grammar-Translation method was the traditional way of learning Greek and Latin. It is now almost unanimously disused in that it consisted in the memorization of entire grammar rules and lists, and the literal translation of either historic or literary texts. Other common criticism to translation in the classroom points to the encouragement of L1 use. Whereas modern teaching methodologies seek to remove L1 from the classroom, translation activities depend upon the use, and sometimes the discussion in, the source language. Translation may also not be suitable for all levels of language learners, especially for beginning levels. As I was able to find out in our classroom exercises, translation encompasses a wide variety of linguistic areas such as register and idiom. Instructors take the risk of having elementary students miss the meaning of an entire text if it pertains to an unsuitable level.

Some other common criticisms to the use of translation in the classroom emphasize the specialized nature of translation, the confinement to a narrow set of skills, and the false idea of “equivalence” between two languages. Newson (1988: 2) criticizes the use of translation in the college classroom by arguing that translation is an art that should be taught in specialized institutions. Moreover, he lists a number of reasons for why translation should be excluded from the language syllabus: the interferences entailed in thinking in one language and transferring the thought to another, the disadvantages of working between two languages instead of within one, the enforcement of the belief that there is a direct correspondence between languages, and the minimization of spoken language in the classroom (6). Carreres (2006: 5) summarizes the main arguments against the use of translation in the modern languages curriculum: 1) translation confines activities to only two skills (reading and writing); 2) it confines students to thinking of the L2 through the prism of the source language; 3) it has no real world application; 4) it is an exercise that elicits more mistakes than accurate responses; 5) it is better suited for literary and grammar oriented students than for the average learner.

However, some scholars have shown that translation is not an isolated activity but rather a “functionalist” and interpersonal one (Nord 1997). In particular, Nord (2005: 161) has analyzed the different competences acquired through translation: linguistic competence in both the L1 and the TL, cultural competence (in the culture of the target language), technical competence in research, etc. Duff (1989: 7) has demonstrated that translation activities could be beneficial for the development of the four skills. Instead of spontaneous translation exercises, it is advisable that careful preparatory activities take place in advance. Reading, writing, listening and speaking activities are helpful to prepare for the main translation task. Contrary to the Grammar-Translation method, these preparatory activities establish translation as an interpersonal communicative activity that focuses on all areas of linguistic learning. Harmer (1991) emphasizes the importance of translation for the expansion of vocabulary items. But reducing translation to the memorization of lexical items would be to associate it with Grammar-Translation methodologies and miss the importance of translation activities within the modern classroom. Translation in groups is an activity that helps to trigger discussion around the uses (and misuses) of language, providing a more comprehensive understanding of linguistic meaning.

In addition to the intercultural and interpersonal components of translation activities, I would like to point out the possible relationship between translation and motivation. In a global environment where translation is progressively viewed not as a special skill but as a required competence, students are able to acquire skills necessary for daily as well as professional use. A case on point would be the use of translation from L1 to L2 for writing exercises. With more possibilities of accessing sources in their L1, students could use translation as a supplementary writing activity. A cautionary warning for this type of example is nonetheless necessary–students’ indiscriminate use of online applications such as Google Translate or overdependence on L1 could be detrimental for the learning of the registers, idioms, and styles of the L2.

All the objections to the use of translation in the language classroom are conclusive only when translation activities follow the traditional pattern of the Grammar-Translation method. If designed following a communicative language frame, translation can be a source of interpersonal, intercultural, and “real world” experiences. Traditional ways of teaching translation were beneficial only to students with literary or grammatical interests, whereas communicative approaches to translation are stimulating to groups of students with broad leanings. Translation in the language classroom should shift away from the learning of a specific set of skills, instead addressing the way in which translation helps to learn a foreign language. This transition entails a number of changes in terms of methodology, with the syllabus focusing not only in forming professional translators but also in fostering language speakers. Finally, translation should not be limited to higher language levels but should also include elementary students. For this it is important to destabilize the traditional opposition between translators and language students, thinking of translators as continuing language learners and language learners as inevitable translators.


Nicolas Campisi

PhD Student in Hispanic Studies

Brown University



Works Cited


Carreres, Angeles. “Strange bedfellows: Translation and language teaching. The teaching of translation into L2 in modern languages degrees: Uses and limitations.” In Sixth Symposium on Translation, Terminology and Interpretation in Cuba and Canada. Canadian Translators, Terminologists and Interpreters Council (2006): 1-21.

Duff, Alan. Translation. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1989.

Harmer, Jeremy. The Practice of English Language Teaching. London: Longman, 1991.

Newson, Dennis. “Making the best of a bad job: The teaching and testing of translation.” Annual Meeting of the International Association for Teachers of English as a Foreign Language. Edinburgh, Scotland. April, 1988.

Nord, Christiane. Text Analysis in Translation: Theory, Methodology, and Didactic Application of a Model for Translation-Oriented Text Analysis. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2005.

–––. Translating as a Purposeful Activity: Functionalist Approaches Explained. Manchester: St. Jerome Publishing, 1997.

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Movement and Technology in the Communicative Language Learning Classroom

May 17, 2015
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Introduction | Screen-centered classrooms?

Many university level language acquisition courses emphasize the role of technology both in and outside the classroom. Incorporating technology increasingly produces creative and effective lesson plans for accessible to all types of learners. Many technological programs offer images, sound, and writing, binding many types of input and output together with speed like never before.

But how often is a language learning classroom becoming a screen-centered classroom rather than student-centered? How often is incorporating technology reduced to a PowerPoint presentation guiding the class day after day? Are students glued to their chairs? Following the inciting question of Shafaei (2011), is teaching language without the body teaching language?

These questions are not particularly new ones, yet there is not a lot written on movement—aside from nonverbal communication—in the classroom within second language acquisition scholarship. Even pencil and paper or textbooks present the problem of media-based classroom settings. My intention with this paper is not eliminate the media that have greatly enhanced the communicative approach, but rather to present movement as a medium for learning as well. There is a lot of potential in the human body to acquire a second language, which I hope to present here (including also unusual source material), leaving the question open to further research and practice.

Part 1 | The Benefits of Movement

            Let’s start small. Movement does not necessarily have to mean that students must get up from their chairs. Instead movement connects mind and body together, creating rhythms that reinforce mindfulness and presence in the language learning process. In Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation, Brian Massumi elaborates upon the process of reading as one folded within movements and gesture: “Enfolded in the muscular, tactile, and visceral sensations of attention are incipient perceptions. When we read, we do not see the individual letters and words. That is what learning to read is all about: learning to stop seeing the letters so you can see through them” (p. 139). Attention in the classroom is one component of a so-called good student, but attention can take on many different forms that oscillate within the body’s responses to outward-projected activity. Attention should not be thought of as a stable state, but rather the quality of coming back to a stable center from distraction. We can think of distraction as fundamentally built into attention. Massumi writes further,

All of this equally pertains to inattention. Distraction, too, is accompanied by characteristic, self-referential actions: scratching, fidgeting, eyes rolling up or around in their sockets as if they were endeavoring to look back in at the brain. Every predominantly visual activity is an economy of attention and distraction, often with a pronounced tendency toward one or the other pole (2002, p. 139).


We can think of movement as a tool for students to check in with their own attention. In the language-learning classroom we can use the economy of attention and distraction to magnetize the students toward the pole of attention, cultivating bodily movement for self-awareness.

Another component of movement includes cognitive mapping. Using shapes and symbols around the classroom can reinforce learning. A study completed on “The use of path integration to guide route learning in ants” shows that discrimination is an important part of cognitive mapping. The researchers placed different shapes in a maze, and the ants had to effectively learn which shapes led from the feeding site to the home site. They were able to create vectors from one to the other with shapes (Schatz, et. al., 1999). This information can be used in a classroom setting. The students can use vectors of movement that take them through a variety of vocabulary and grammar that map onto their everyday lives. For example, the classroom can be symbolically set up as a house to describe daily routines, or as a market to learn vocabulary for traversing city businesses. Like the ants, the students can learn via “path integration” to help them navigate through the unfamiliar landscape of a second language.

Gestures and cognitive mapping are not metaphors. I think we can relate the ways that movement can potentially be integrated into the classroom following a lot of the research that has been conducted on yoga and neuroscience in recent decades.[1] Studies show that even changing your posture slightly can lift mood and raise awareness. Movement techniques can certainly add a positive boost to the classroom everyday.

Not only does movement enhance the classroom environment, but nonverbal communication can increase sociolinguistic linguistic competence. Movement is a communicative ability that produces coherence and cohesion in interpersonal interactions (Gregerson, 2005, p. 51). Even though not all movement can lead to effective communication, knowing how to move to express can be an important part of cultural competence as well. Ekman and Friesen describe four different types of gestures for effective communication: illustrators, regulators, emblems, and affect displays. Illustrators are the natural movements that accompany speech, communicating the meaning and context of a verbal message with hand gestures, smiling, and frowning. Regulators refer to the body language cues that serve to control turn-taking in conversation and organizes interaction patterns. Examples include physical gestures, changes in gaze direction, eye contact, and proximity between bodies. Emblems are nonverbal behaviors that intentionally transmit a message. These are the most subject to change meaning from context to context. Examples include nodding affirmatively or negatively, the O.K. sign, and thumbs up or down. Affect displays express emotion, such as laughing, crying, and posture. By thinking of these forms of nonverbal communication as expressive movement inherent in every communicative instance, we can encourage language learning that tessellates with learning communicatively with technology. The next step is to think about how to diffuse these movements deliberately with technological engagement in a classroom setting.

Part 2 | How Technology Can Incorporate Movement

So, how can we integrate movement with technology at the same time so that media and bodies are not seen as separate entities in the communicative language-learning classroom? (Especially when just using just movement or technology alone in the classroom already presents a challenge!) We can first start to think about the technologies that are already popular in second language acquisition classrooms and how each of them can incorporate movement.[2] These suggestions are a platform to continue thinking about how to use technology and movement together, often incorporating and combining more than one technological tool. Most of these suggestions apply to the beginner level of language learning.

  • Blogs: Blogs encourage students to develop long-term (or at least semester-long) threads of ideas. Blogs are also a great place for students to keep track of what inspires them. An idea for including movement in a blog format is for students to look at any movement art that within the country or culture of the spoken language. They can use the blog to describe the movement in a variety of writing formats: poetry, email, letter, newspaper review, or creative prose. Students can also replicate each other’s movement according to their peers’ language.
  • Digital Storytelling: Digital Storytelling can create comics, animation, cartoons with digital platforms. Students can use these platforms to describe movement through storytelling, portraying characters moving.
  • Discussion Threads: Discussion threads utilize the online platforms provided by the university to connect students outside of the classroom. Students can use a discussion thread to explore topics more closely. For example, students can each share one nonverbal cue that interests them on the discussion thread. The next day in class, the instructor can hand out cards with one of the cues on each card to each student. Throughout class that day, the student must incorporate as that nonverbal cue as much as they can. It can turn out to be very entertaining, but keep control that the cues are positive!
  • E-Portfolios: E-Portfolios are an exciting way to share students’ work widely, so it is important that students create work in the language-learning classroom that they can be proud of. Students with artistic propensities can share the work they make with descriptions in the target language. Students that write poetry or any other form of creative expression can experiment and share in the target language. Students that feel they do not want to express creatively in their native language may actually find it freeing to create work in another language!
  • Mapping Software: Mapping software, such as Google maps, correlates physical movement to an interactive image. Students can explore with direction words and navigating through foreign cities.
  • Presentation Tools: Presentation tools are, in my opinion, the greatest limitation of movement in the classroom. Students are expected to sit and fix their eyes upon the screen and respond when the screen tells them too. But, as we know, presentation tools, like PowerPoint, Prezi, and SlideShare, are incredible for visual learners. It is important to have slides that encourage breaks for group work activity and movement in between slides with visualized input. If students see vocabulary input for restaurant etiquette or grammar practice with modal verbs, the next slide could prompt a dynamic activity where students move around and talk to each other.
  • Video Hosting: Video hosting, like Vimeo or Youtube can develop students’ ideas in visual time-based film formats. The possibilities are endless: short films, video diaries, stop motion animation, dance, documentaries!
  • Videoconferencing Platforms: Videoconferencing platforms connect students with other classrooms. Students can use videoconferencing on smartphones or iPads to exchange tours of a building in the target language within their university with another university.
  • Wikis: Wikis facilitate online collaborative class discussion and organize topics. A way to incorporate movement is to have students create a wiki for traveling abroad to a country in which the language is spoken. Each topic in the wiki can include student’s photos and videos for how to interact in that country with the corresponding verbal language.

There are also physical computing technologies that inherently can require movement and haptic interaction.[3] These are bit harder to access, but are becoming increasingly more available at universities. These require a bit more knowledge to use. Here is a list to explore using in the classroom; some of these ideas are from Martinez and Stager (2013):

  • Arduino
  • CAVE
  • Dance Dance Revolution
  • LEGO engineering
  • Lilypad Arduino
  • Oculus Rift
  • Processing
  • Sony Eyetoy
  • Theremino
  • X-Box Kinnect


Coda | Movers, Makers, Communicators

            Part 1 explored how movement can be beneficial affectively and how focusing on the intricacies of the affective atmosphere in the classroom can enhance learning. Part 1 also elaborated upon how sociolinguistic competence and cultural competence includes gestures, movements, and affects. The classroom and the cultural context can be seen as nested realms to explore movement. The classroom can be seen as a creative lab to experiment with movement and technology together. Part 2 suggested technologies, activities, and tools to help foster the classroom as a meaningful context to learn a language creatively.

If instructors only use technology to keep the classroom seated and postures slouched toward the screens, they are not investigating the full potential of appealing to the many facets of language learning and communication. Technology and movement can enhance all the competences in language, if the activities are designed appropriately. By using the body to both move and express nonverbal communication—along with the effective speech, listening, reading and writing—students can communicate meaningfully in the classroom and in the world.


Arndt, H., & Janney, R.W. (1987). InterGrammar: Toward an integrative model of verbal, prosodic and kinesic choices in speech. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Butler-Pascoe, E., & Wiburg, K.M. (2003). Technology and teaching English language learners. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Allyn and Bacon/Pearson.

Eibl-Eibesfeldt, I. (1972). Similarities and differences between cultures in expressive movements. In R.A. Hinde (Ed.), Nonverbal communication (pp. 297-312). London: CUP.

Gregersen, T. (2005). Nonverbal cues: Clues to the detection of foreign language anxiety. Foreign Language Annals 38(3), 388-400.

Gregersen, Tammy S. (2007). Language learning beyond words: Incorporating body language into classroom activities. Reflections on English Language Teaching: Vol. 6, No. 1 (pp. 51-64).

Igoe, Tom; O’Sullivan, Dan (2004). Physical Computing: Sensing and Controlling the Physical World with Computers. Premier Press.

Kellerman, S. (1992). I see what you mean: The role of kinesic behaviour in listening and the implications for foreign and second language learning. Applied Linguistics 13(3), 239-258.

Knapp, M., & Hall, J. (2006). Nonverbal communication in human interaction. Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Pennycook, A. (1985). Actions speak louder than words: Paralanguage, communication, and education. TESOL Quarterly 19(2), 259-282.

Martinez, Sylvia Libow & Stager, Gary. Invent to Learn: Making, Tinkering, and Engineering in the Classroom. Torrance, CA: Constructing Modern Knowledge Press, 2013.

Massumi, Brian. (2002). Parables for the Virtual: Movement, Affect, Sensation. Durham, NC & London: Duke University Press.

McNeely, Ben. “Using Technology as a Learning Tool, Not Just the Cool New Thing.”

Schatz, B., S. Chameron, G. Beugnon, & T.S. Collett, “The use of path integration to guide route learning in ants,” Nature 399, 769-772 (24 June 1999)


[1] See for example: Sat Bir Singh Khalsa & Jodi Gould, Your Brain on Yoga (RosettaBooks: 2012). Rick Hanson, Buddhas Brain: Practical Neuroscience Happiness (Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, 2009).

[2] Columbia University has a great online resource listing different technologies for both teachers and students: “Technology Resources for Language Teaching and Learning”

[3] See also: Igoe, Tom; O’Sullivan, Dan (2004). Physical Computing: Sensing and Controlling the Physical World with Computers. Premier Press.

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Hindi-Urdu Night

May 17, 2015

Hindi-Urdu Night


The Hindi-Urdu Night coordinated by the Hindi-Urdu program and sponsored by the Center for Language Studies is a small gathering of students learning Hindi-Urdu.  It is an event that provides a wonderful opportunity to the students to showcase their talent in the most creative ways and also to enhance their learning while doing so. It is usually organised towards the end of the academic year. This year, it was organised on May 1, 2015. As a tradition, this event is usually followed by the festival of colors (Holi) which is mainly observed in India and Nepal but now-a-days is becoming exceedingly popular in various parts across the globe that have substantial Indian population. Holi celebration starts with the Holika bonfire on the eve of Holi. It symbolizes the end of evil forces. The festival also signifies the victory of good over evil. During Holi, people throw colors at each other. Children also play with water guns and a lot of delicacies are cooked in every family as food is an integral part of celebration across the globe. The Hindi/Urdu Night offered some famous Indian delicacies for everyone present. The students put up various performances like skit, classical Indian dance, classical Indian music by members of Raagmala, a fusion duet combining English and Hindi songs and Bollywood group dance.

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