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Rafael draws an interesting connection between the crowd and technology in his article about the cell phone and the crowd. He points out that “the crowd is a medium, a way of gathering and transforming elements, objects, people, and things,” so that “in a sense, the crowd is not merely an effect of technological devices, it is a technology.” (414) This is interesting because he then goes on to describe how the crowd can become an incredibly liberating space, as the embodiment of freedom and incalculable pleasure. At it’s most utopian, “the crowd became a medium for the recurrence of another fantasy that emanates from the utopian side of bourgeosis nationalist wishfulness: the abolition of social hierarchy.” (415/6) So the crowd became a space of equality and anonymity. I understand Rafael’s point about the crowd as a technology, but I am not sure the cell phone goes with this argument. A cell phone is distinctly not anonymous. Your number is tied to your name. You are only anonymous to people who do not know you, which is no different than anonymity in face-to-face exchanges. So I am not sure I totally agree with his statements about cell phone use and anonymity, especially statements like “cell phone users accepted anonymity as a condition of possibility for sociality.” I think that is a statement deserving of further questioning and unpacking.